Internet of Things(IoT)

Internet of Things or more commonly IoT is an emerging concept in the technical world. We want more comfort in our life. Internet has become a core part of our life. This IoT is based on this collaboration of comfort and Internet. Students doing masters can find this topic interesting as well as innovative. They can opt this topic for an M.Tech thesis topic. There are various thesis topics in IoT(Internet of Things) that are yet to be explored. Not only masters, PhD students can also go for thesis in IoT(Internet of Things). But first of all, a question arises in everyone’s mind that:

What is IoT or Internet of Things?

Introduction

Anyone who is new to this topic is eager to know what is internet of things(IoT). Well, internet of things is network of physical devices connected to each other for exchange of data and information through sensors and actuators. These actuators and sensors are embedded on to these devices which allow them to exchange data with each other. In simple terms, IoT means letting the devices to connect to the internet to make our life much easier. The ‘things’ here refer to internet of things devices like chips, cameras, sensors or such other physical devices.

IoT is going to be an essential part of our life in near future. Through IoT, distant or remote objects can be controlled on this network. You might have heard about smart homes. The concept of smart homes is based on Internet of Things(IoT). But IoT is not limited to smart homes as there are various applications of IoT which will be discussed later in this article.

Internet of Things(IoT) covers a distinct number of protocols, domains, and applications. There will be more advanced communication between the devices with better connectivity and services. The embedded devices will provide advanced automation in almost every area ranging from homes to cities. These devices gather important information employing latest technologies and then transfer this information to other devices.

The term ‘internet of things’ was found by Kevin Ashton and Gamble in 1999. The research work in this field is going on from 1980s.It has become a trending topic for M.Tech thesis as well as for masters project.

IoT lifecycle is based on the following phases:

  • Create –The physical devices(sensors/actuators) gather information from its surroundings which can be used for insights.

  • Communicate –The collected data is transferred to the desired location through the network.

  • Aggregate –The devices aggregate the collected data.

  • Analyse –The aggregated data is analyzed to generate some patterns.

  • Act – Here, based on the information, suitable actions are performed.

Characteristics of IoT(Internet of Things)

IoT provides services at the global level by the interconnection of various physical devices using global infrastructure. It is based on existing and the evolving technologies. Following are some of the characteristics of IoT(Internet of Things):

  1. Intelligence – IoT is a combination of hardware and software along with complex algorithms and computations. The capabilities of IoT is enhanced due to its intelligence which enable them to respond and act according to the situation. The interaction between different devices is only because of its intelligence.

  2. Connectivity – Connectivity in IoT enables it to connect various everyday use objects. This contributes to overall intelligence of IoT network. This also makes way for new market opportunities by creating network of smart objects and applications. Moreover, the network will be more accessible and compatible.

  3. Dynamic Nature – The IoT devices capture data from its surrounding environment. This is done by the dynamic changes that take place around these devices. The state of IoT devices change dynamically like connected or disconnected and also due to temperature, location and speed. Also, it can change due to person, place or time.

  4. Enormity – In the near future, the number of devices connected to the network for communication will be much larger than it is today. Also, it will become much more complex to manage and handle data from these devices. A statistics suggest that more than 5 million new devices are connected every day and the number is only going to increase.

  5. Sensing – Sensors are an important component in IoT without which the changes in the environment cannot be detected and measured. These sensors interact with the environment to detect and collect data. The information that is sensed by the sensor is basically the input from the environment that can provide some valuable information.

  6. Diversity – Diversity or heterogeneity is one of the main characteristics of IoT. The IoT devices have different hardware platforms and network and they are able to communicate with other devices through different networks. The IoT network is able to support connectivity between distinct networks. The core requirements for this diversity is scalability, modularity, extensibility, and interoperability.

  7. Security – Currently there are some security and privacy issues with IoT network which with more development in this field will be vanished. It is very important to secure data while it is being transferred between devices.

IoT architecture and working

The architecture of IoT is mainly referred to as four-stage architecture. IoT architecture can be a IoT based thesis topic. Stage 1 includes the sensors and the actuators. Stage 2 includes the aggregation systems and analog-to-digital converter. In stage 3, processing of the data is done by some technology. In stage 4, the data is moved to data center systems.

Stage 1

In the first stage, the data is collected by the sensors from the surrounding environment or from an object and is converted into useful one. An actuator also act according to the change in physical conditions. The sensors and actuators are used in almost every field from industries to healthcare. The scope of IoT is increasing day by day according to the demands. The processing power of IoT devices is limited. The data can be processed at the sensor.

Stage 2

In the second stage, there is the internet gateway. The data collected by the sensors is in analog form. It is converted into digital format using data acquisition systems(DAS) for further processing. The DAS performs analog to digital conversions along with aggregation of data. The Internet gateway receives this aggregated and digitized data and provide routing for it over the wireless or wired network. The analog data is converted to digital one as the analog streams create large volumes of data. Also the analog data requires specialized softwares for processing based on its timings and structures.

Stage 3

After the data is digitized and aggregated, it enters the third stage for more processing. IT systems perform this processing through detailed analysis. These IT systems more commonly edge IT systems may be at off-site or at on-site.

Stage 4

It is the stage in which the data is stored at data centers and cloud. The data doesn’t require immediate feedback and requires more detailed processing is transferred to data centers which have more advanced IT systems to perform in-depth analysis. This type of processing takes place on the location.
Different IoT devices have different architecture. This was just an outline of the IoT architecture. You can get thesis guidance in Internet of Things for this architecture topic in order to know more.

Applications of IoT(Internet of Things)

Take a glimpse at some of the real world applications of IoT that have transformed our daily life. If you wish to choose this topic for your thesis, then you can go for this subtopic of applications for thesis in IoT(Internet of Things). There are more surprises in this field in future. Check out some of the real world applications of IoT.

  • Smart Homes – Smart Homes is the most trending feature of IoT. People are curious about this feature. They want their homes to be converted to smart homes in order to lead a more comfortable and convenient life. Who don’t want a home in which air conditioner or heater automatically switch on and off sensing the temperature or switch off the light? Smart Home products are dedicated to save time, money and energy. Smart homes will soon become a common feature just as smartphones.

  • Wearable gadgets – There is heavy demand of wearable IoT devices in the market. These wearable IoT devices have sensors and softwares installed in them that collect valuable information about the user and processing generates useful insights for the user. These devices are mainly for health, fitness and entertainment purposes. The main advantage of these gadgets are small size, highly efficient and low power.

  • Connected Cars – These type of cars are able to operate and maintain on their own through sensors and internet connectivity for the comfort of the passengers. Major brands are working towards this to bring new revolution to vehicular systems.

  • Industries – Industrial Internet is a hot discussion in the industrial world. It aims to empower industries with sensors, softwares and analytics to manufacture more advanced and brilliant machines. The major advantages of this will be quality control, sustainability, goods tracking and real time information exchange.

  • Smart Cities – From smart homes, the applications of IoT now extends to smart cities. What all feature will be included in a smart city? Smart surveillance, automated transport management, energy management, water distribution, security and environment monitoring. IoT pledges to solve the problems that the people living in cities commonly face like traffic, pollution etc.

  • Agriculture – The demand for food supply is increasing due to increase in global population. IoT tends to develop certain techniques in the field of agriculture to increase food production. Moreover, farmers can also get useful insights regarding the soil and moisture requirements etc.

  • Energy – Smart grid concept is gaining attention all over the world. It aims to improve the efficiency of the electricity along with measuring consumer electricity consumption.

  • Healthcare – Smart healthcare systems will be able to collect health information of an individual. It aims to provide healthier life to patients.

Thesis in IoT(Internet of Things)

Advantages of IoT(Internet of Things)

IoT is the future of technology and it will make our life easier and comfortable. Following are the advantages of IoT:

  • Communication – IoT enables better quality communication between the devices known as machine to machine communication. Also, more transparency is there between the devices.

  • Automation and Control – The machines communicate with each other without human intervention thus giving more automation and control. This will provide timely output and quicker response time.

  • Information – With IoT we can collect valuable information through sensors and actuators from the surrounding environment.

  • Time and Money – The biggest advantage of IoT is saving time and money. This will be beneficial to people in their daily life as the devices can communicate with each other on their own.

  • Efficiency – It is also efficient therefore producing more accurate results. It will save time and will enable people to do some other creative work.

  • Better quality of life – These devices are designed to provide a better quality of life for the comfort and convenience of the people.

Disadvantages of IoT(Internet of Things)

Although it aims to provide comfort in life, there are certain disadvantages of IoT that should be considered.

  • Compatibility – As the devices in the network are of different manufactures, there may be compatibility issues like whether the device is able to connect or not. There are also no international standards defined for interconnection of devices. This issue can be overcome by designing some standards.

  • Complexity – IoT is a comples system therfore the chances of failure are more. Also there may be a bug or error in the functionality.

  • Security/Privacy Issues – Security and privacy issues persist while data is being transferred from one user to other. Your valuable information can be stolen and misused.

  • Lesser Employment – With the advent of this technology, more people will lose their jobs as everything will be self automated. This will cause a great level of unemployment in the society.

  • Technology dependent life – We will become slaves of technology. Even younger generation is more addicted to this technology. We will become dependent on technology for everything.

IoT Cloud Platform

Developers, business managers anyone can benefit from the applications of Internet of Things(IoT). There are number of cloud services available for internet of things. Thesis help and guidance in IoT(Internet of Things) can be taken from a professional experienced in IoT. Some of these are:

  • Amazon Web Service IoT Platform

  • Microsoft Azure IoT Hub

  • IBM Watson IoT Platform

  • Google Cloud Platform

  • Oracle

  • Salesforce

  • Bosch

  • Cisco IoT Cloud Connect

  • SAP Cloud Platform

This was all about Internet of Things. The main thesis topics in IoT and research areas include applications of IoT, working, challenges and IoT Cloud Platform.

 

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