Mobile Ad Hoc Network (MANET)
The mobile ad hoc network is the type of network which is decentralized in nature. In the mobile ad hoc network nodes simply configure together to form the network. In the network single hop and multi-hop type of communication is possible which forms a direct and indirect type of communication. When the two nodes are in the range of each other they can directly communicate with each other through direct communication. In the meanwhile multi-hop type of communication is the one in which nodes can indirectly communicate through intermediate nodes.
To establish a secure and efficient path from source to destination various types of routing protocols proactive and hybrid. In the reactive routing protocols, nodes gather the network information to establish a path to the destination. In the proactive routing protocols, the source node uses the network predefined information to establish a path to the destination. In hybrid routing protocol, source gather network information and also uses predefined information for the path establishment to the destination. Due to self-configuring nature of MANET, many malicious nodes may join the network which are responsible various types of active and passive attacks. In the MANET routing, security and QoS are the three major issues which can be resolved in future to make communication more efficient and reliable came into existence in the recent time. The routing protocols are broadly classified into reactive, proactive.
MANET is a good thesis topic if you are from networking field. Thesis guidance agencies will recommend this topic for thesis as it is the latest trend in the field of networking and they will provide thesis help in this new field. In MANET, the devices connected have the ability to move freely in any direction and they can change link with other devices. Following are the types of Mobile ad hoc Networks:
- Vehicular ad hoc Network(VANET) – In this type of network, vehicles act as the nodes to create a network. Other vehicles can join this network to communicate.
- Smartphone ad hoc Network(SPAN) – In this type of network, smartphones become routers and act as an alternate for information sharing.
- Internet-based mobile ad hoc Network – This type of network uses certain internet-based protocols for linking nodes.
In MANET, each node function as the source, sink, and router. The nodes transfer packets to other nodes for communication. The nodes find optimal path for transferring packets for easy communication. Mobile ad hoc Network has the following advantages:
- Lower cost
- Easy deployment
MANET has some drawbacks also which are as follows:
- The error rate is high due to certain obstructions.
- The data rate is lower due to a lower frequency.
- Multiple hops in the route between the nodes is a challenge.
- This type of network faces some security issues due to certain vulnerabilities.
- Power consumption is high for this type of network.
One can study MANET by using various simulation tools like OPNET, NetSim, NS2, OMNeTT etc. This is a very good topic for the thesis. Thesis help for this topic can be taken from thesis guidance agencies who will guide the students in detail about Mobile ad hoc Network.
Thesis topics in Mobile ad hoc Network(MANET)
MANET is a good choice for the thesis in the field of wireless communication. Masters students can choose any one good topic for their thesis or research. Following is the list of topics in Mobile ad hoc Network(MANET) for project, research, and thesis:
- MANET Routing Protocols
- Dynamic Source Routing
- Wireless Sensor Network
- Wireless ad-hoc Network(WANET)
- Fog Networking
- Multicast Routing
AmbientTalk – It is an object-oriented programming language developed for writing programs for mobile ad hoc network. It is mainly used for experimental purposes and is developed at Programming Technology Laboratory in Belgium. It is an experimental language and is implemented using Java. It aids in developing software that can run in the highly volatile network and uses less infrastructure. It also finds its application in languages like Smalltalk and Self.
MANET Routing Protocols – There are various routing protocols used in the ad-hoc network. These protocols are accepted under Internet Engineering Task Force(IETF). AODV is one such protocol. It is a reactive protocol and stands for Ad-hoc On-Demand Distance Vector. It establishes a route between two nodes for communication. When a node wants to communicate with other nodes, it sends route request(RREQ) message to find the best possible route. When this message reaches the destination node or any intermediatory node, a route is established. OLSR is a proactive protocol. It stands for Optimized Link State Routing. It is a table-driven protocol and uses a link-state scheme to find topology. ZRP is a hybrid protocol that combines the reactive and proactive protocols. ZRP stands for Zone Routing Protocol. It divides the topology into different zones and in these respective zones, different protocols are applied.
Dynamic Source Routing – It is a routing protocol similar to AODV for wireless networks. It uses source routing for finding routes. During route discovery, the address of all devices between source and destination is accumulated to determine source route. There are two major processes in this protocol – Route Discovery and Route Maintenance.
Wireless Sensor Network – It is a wireless network based on sensors to measure the surrounding conditions like temperature, sound, and pressure. It finds its application in many areas including industries, military, and consumer-based applications. This network consists of a number of nodes where each node is connected to a sensor. Each sensor node has a radio transceiver, antenna, microcontroller and a battery. It can be simulated using OPNET, NetSim, NS2, and NS3.
Wireless ad-hoc Network(WANET) – It is a type of wireless network which is decentralized. MANET is a type of wireless ad-hoc network. This type of network does not require existing infrastructure like routers and access points. Instead, each node forwards data to other nodes and is dependent on network connectivity and routing algorithms. The nodes are free to move as these are self-configurable and dynamic. It finds its use in MANET, VANET and SPAN networks.
Fog Networking – Fog networking or fog computing is a distributed networking environment related to cloud computing and internet of things(IoT) and uses end-user clients for storage, communication, configuration, and management. The main purpose of fog networking is for efficient data transfer between the source and the cloud. It is a more powerful network than the mobile ad hoc network.
Multicast Routing – Multicast Routing plays an important role in mobile ad hoc network in improving the performance of the network along with channel capacity and battery usage. AMRIS and ODMRP are two important multicast routing protocols. Multicast routing is crucial in certain applications of mobile ad hoc network.
Applications of Mobile ad hoc Network(MANET)
There are various applications of Mobile ad hoc Network(MANET) ranging from the environment to industries. Following are some of the main application areas of Mobile ad hoc Network.
Military – MANET is used in military areas like army, navy to construct wireless, infrastructure-less network. This network is easy to deploy. It can be used by soldiers in remote locations for communication. Wireless ad hoc network is used by unmanned aerial vehicle(UAV) to communicate with other UAVs.
Smart Home – MANET is used in home automation. ZigBee is an example of this type of network used extensively in making smart homes.
Disaster Rescue – Wireless ad hoc networks can be easily installed without any need of infrastructure in areas that have recently faced a disaster. It will ease the rescue operations as the rescue workers and fireman can communicate with each other to reach the injured persons.
Healthcare – This network can be used in healthcare systems to monitor the patients residing at a distant location and providing him every possible help using this communication.